- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder that affects the large intestine.
- IBS is a chronic condition that you'll need to manage long term.
- Only a small number of people with IBS have severe signs and symptoms.
- IBS doesn't cause changes in bowel tissue or increase your risk of colorectal cancer.
Is there a vaccine for covid 19 ??
Yes there are now several vaccines that are in use. The first mass vaccination programme started in early December 2020 and as of and as of 15 February 2021, 175.3 million vaccine doses have been administered. At least 7 different vaccines (3 platforms) have been administered.
WHO issued an Emergency Use Listing (EULs) for the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine (BNT162b2) on 31 December 2020. On 15 February 2021, WHO issued EULs for two versions of the AstraZeneca/Oxford COVID-19 vaccine, manufactured by the Serum Institute of India and SKBio. WHO is on track to EUL other vaccine products through June.
Will covid 19 vaccine provide long term immunity ?
Because COVID vaccines have only been developed in the past months, it’s too early to know the duration of protection of COVID-19 vaccines. Research is ongoing to answer this question. However, it’s encouraging that available data suggest that most people who recover from COVID-19 develop an immune response that provides at least some period of protection against reinfection – although we’re still learning how strong this protection is, and how long it lasts.
How quickly could covid 19 vaccines stop the pandemic ?
The impact of COVID-19 vaccines on the pandemic will depend on several factors. These include the effectiveness of the vaccines; how quickly they are approved, manufactured, and delivered; the possible development of other variants and how many people get vaccinated
Whilst trials have shown several COVID-19 vaccines to have high levels of efficacy, like all other vaccines, COVID-19 vaccines will not be 100% effective. WHO is working to help ensure that approved vaccines are as effective as possible, so they can have the greatest impact on the pandemic.
What types of covid vaccines are being developed ?
Several different types of potential vaccines for COVID-19 are in development, including:
- Inactivated or weakened virus vaccines, which use a form of the virus that has been inactivated or weakened so it doesn’t cause disease, but still generates an immune response.
- Protein-based vaccines, which use harmless fragments of proteins or protein shells that mimic the COVID-19 virus to safely generate an immune response.
- Viral vector vaccines, which use a safe virus that cannot cause disease but serves as a platform to produce coronavirus proteins to generate an immune response.
- RNA and DNA vaccines, a cutting-edge approach that uses genetically engineered RNA or DNA to generate a protein that itself safely prompts an immune response.
What are the benefits of being vaccinated ?
Developing immunity through vaccination means there is a reduced risk of developing the illness and its consequences. This immunity helps you fight the virus if exposed. Getting vaccinated may also protect people around you, because if you are protected from getting infected and from disease, you are less likely to infect someone else. This is particularly important to protect people at increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19, such as healthcare providers, older or elderly adults, and people with other medical conditions.
How will we know if covid 19 vaccines are safe ?
The process to develop COVID vaccines is fast-tracked while maintaining the highest standards: Given the urgent need to stop the pandemic, pauses between steps, often needed to secure funding, have been shortened, or eliminated, and in some cases, steps are being carried out in parallel to accelerate the process, wherever that is safe to do. COVID-19 vaccine developers have issued a joint pledge not to seek government approval for their vaccines until they’ve been proven to be safe and effective.
There are many strict protections in place to help ensure that COVID-19 vaccines are safe. Like all vaccines, COVID-19 vaccines are going through a rigorous, multi-stage testing process, including large (phase III) trials that involve tens of thousands of people. These trials, which include some groups at high risk for COVID-19 (certain groups like pregnant and lactating women were not included in vaccine trials), are specifically designed to identify any common side effects or other safety concerns.
Symptoms: The signs and symptoms of IBS vary but are usually present for a long time. The most common include:
- Abdominal pain, cramping or bloating that is related to passing a bowel movement
- Changes in appearance of bowel movement
- Changes in how often you are having a bowel movement
Other symptoms that are often related include bloating, increased gas or mucus in the stool.
Causes: The precise cause of IBS isn't known. Factors that appear to play a role include:
- Muscle contractions in the intestine.
- Nervous system. Abnormalities in the nerves in your digestive system may cause you to experience greater than normal discomfort when your abdomen stretches from gas or stool.
- Severe infection. IBS can develop after a severe bout of diarrhea (gastroenteritis) caused by bacteria or a virus. IBS might also be associated with a surplus of bacteria in the intestines (bacterial overgrowth).
- Early life stress. People exposed to stressful events, especially in childhood, tend to have more symptoms of IBS.
- Changes in gut microbes. Examples include changes in bacteria, fungi and viruses, which normally reside in the intestines and play a key role in health. Research indicates that the microbes in people with IBS might differ from those in healthy people.
Triggers: Symptoms of IBS can be triggered by:
- Food. The role of food allergy or intolerance in IBS isn't fully understood. A true food allergy rarely causes IBS. But many people have worse IBS symptoms when they eat or drink certain foods or beverages, including wheat, dairy products, citrus fruits, beans, cabbage, milk and carbonated drinks.
- Stress. Most people with IBS experience worse or more-frequent signs and symptoms during periods of increased stress. But while stress may aggravate symptoms, it doesn't cause them.
Risk factors: Many people have occasional signs and symptoms of IBS. But you're more likely to have the syndrome if you:
- Are young: IBS occurs more frequently in people under age 50.
- Are female: Estrogen therapy before or after menopause also is a risk factor for IBS.
- Have a family history of IBS.
- Have anxiety, depression or other mental health issues.
Complications: Chronic constipation or diarrhea can cause hemorrhoids.
In addition, IBS is associated with:
- Poor quality of life.
- Mood disorders.
Diagnosis: There's no test to definitively diagnose IBS. Your doctor is likely to start with a complete medical history, physical exam and tests to rule out other conditions, such as celiac disease.
After other conditions have been ruled out, your doctor is likely to use one of these sets of diagnostic criteria for IBS:
- Type of IBS. For the purpose of treatment, IBS can be divided into three types, based on your symptoms: constipation-predominant, diarrhea-predominant or mixed.
- Your doctor will also likely assess whether you have other signs or symptoms that might suggest another, more serious, condition. These signs and symptoms include:
- Onset of signs and symptoms after age 50
- Weight loss
- Rectal bleeding
- Nausea or recurrent vomiting
- Abdominal pain, especially if it's not related to a bowel movement, or occurs at night
- Diarrhea that is persistent or awakens you from sleep
- Anemia related to low iron
If you have these signs or symptoms, or if an initial treatment for IBS doesn't work, you'll likely need additional tests.
- X-ray or CT scan.
- Upper endoscopy.
- Laboratory tests can include:
- Lactose intolerance tests.
- Breathe test for bacterial overgrowth.
- Stool tests.
Treatment: Treatment of IBS focuses on relieving symptoms so that you can live as normally as possible.
Mild signs and symptoms can often be controlled by managing stress and by making changes in your diet and lifestyle. Try to:
- Avoid foods that trigger your symptoms
- Eat high-fiber foods
- Drink plenty of fluids
- Exercise regularly
- Get enough sleep
Your doctor might suggest that you eliminate from your diet:
- High-gas foods.
- FODMAPs. Some people are sensitive to certain carbohydrates such as fructose, fructans, lactose and others, known as FODMAPs — fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols. FODMAPs are found in certain grains, vegetables, fruits and dairy products.
A dietitian can help you with these diet changes.
If your problems are moderate or severe, your doctor might suggest counseling — especially if you have depression or if stress tends to worsen your symptoms.
In addition, based on your symptoms your doctor might suggest medications such as:
- Fiber supplements
- Anti-diarrheal medications
- Anticholinergic medications
- Tricyclic antidepressants
- SSRI antidepressants
- Pain medications